Background on the Disease (demographic distribution, prevalence, etc)
Acute nephritic syndrome (ANS) refers to a group of symptoms that come to the surface with some specific disorders that trigger the swelling and inflammation of the glomeruli in the kidney, or glomerulonephritis (Medline Plus, 2020). The prevalence rate of this disease is quite wider in range and it can occur in children, adolescents, adults, and older people as well (Medline Plus, 2020). It should be taken into account that ANS is quite rare in developed countries owing to improved hygiene and decreased rate of post-streptococcal and another post-infection glomerulonephritis; in many developing nations the disease occurs among children between 2 and 12 especially, but it may occur at any age (HealthEngine, 2003).
The Risk Factors, Symptoms, Clinical Presentations
There are certain specific risk factors for the growth of ANS. For instance, family history of kidney disease and infection, low immunity system and immune system diseases like lupus, consumption of too many antibiotics or painkillers, and recent surgery on the urinary tract can be risk factors for ANS (Macon, Yu & Nall, 2019). Certain specific symptoms and clinical presentations of the disease include pain in the pelvis, experiencing a burning sensation or pain while urinating, frequent need to urinate, cloudy urine, presence of blood or pus in the urine, pain in the kidney area or abdomen, swelling of different parts of the body, vomiting, fever, and hypertension (Macon, Yu & Nall, 2019).
Typical Laboratory and Diagnostic Findings
Typical laboratory and diagnostic findings include hypertension, pulmonary and peripheral oedema associated with findings of vasculitis like rashes, petechiae, joint swelling, joint pain and peripheral nerve dysfunction (HealthEngine, 2003). Moreover, specific diagnostic methods are recommended and prescribed for ascertaining ANS. For instance, urine chemistry tests, renal imagining, coagulation profiles, ASOTs, and throat culture are among the most specific investigative methods (HealthEngine, 2003).
Medications are used to treat ANS. In this regard, it should be noted that, in cases of serious infection the patient may require intravenous (IV) antibiotics and along with that, to alleviate the degree of pain, pain relievers are also recommended and prescribed (Macon, Yu & Nall, 2019). If the electrolyte levels of the patient are too high then the doctor may prescribe IV fluids for encouraging the kidneys to release extra electrolytes and if the electrolytes are low, the patient has to consume supplements (Macon, Yu & Nall, 2019). Dialysis is yet another mode of treatment that is often used to treat and manage ANS (Macon, Yu & Nall, 2019).
One of the primary prevention strategies for preventing ANS is lowering the consumption and intake of sodium. To keep at bay the disease people must use fresh meats and vegetables instead of frozen or pre-packaged ones that are high in sodium levels (Macon, Yu & Nall, 2019). Low sodium or no-sodium foods should be consumed to prevent the disease and while seasoning the food one must use spices and herbs instead of seasonings that are sodium-blended and salt (Macon, Yu & Nall, 2019).
Starting Point of Discussion
Despite advances in the medical sciences and treatment procedures, to date, the last resort for treating ANS is permanent dialysis because that is the only way to keep a patient alive when both the kidneys stop working owing to ANS.