Case Study - Waste Management

Comparison of Landfill method of Waste Management between Hyderabad and Paris

This study is going to discuss sanitary landfills in Hyderabad and Paris. Sanitary landfills involve the process of dumping waste into a pit with several layers. Here, the waste is isolated from the environment till it becomes safe or is decomposed via the biological process. The study aims to focus on the waste management system of Hyderabad and Paris. This helps in preventing contamination of the soil, water, or environment. Whenever the landfills get full they are capped for transformation. However, there are certain issues with this kind of waste management which are also being addressed in this study. The study has a qualitative approach for collecting the data which allows the researcher with an extent of flexibility to interpret the results in own way. In addition to this, the data collection method is secondary which means that the author has collected facts and figures from previously published literature on the respective domain. Finally, the author used interpretivism to interpret the outcome and to understand the meaning of the study. The results show that sanitary landfill can generate energy in the form of gas and the waste can also be used as fuels. However, it is also important to use the landfill sites wisely as they might have adverse environmental effects in the form of leaching or emission of toxic gases


Chapter 1 –  Introduction

Waste management is a concern for densely populated cities of the world, and one of the suggested methods of waste disposal in sanitary landfills. This method has evolved after the adverse effects of an open system of dumping became apparent. This method has been proven to be an improvement over the open dumps, in terms of minimizing the environmental impacts. The research for the present dissertation will be focused on dealing with the waste in different cities in India.

India is a developing nation, and there are still areas in waste management that remain to be explored. India, as in most developing countries, relies on waste management methods such as dumping, landfill, composting, and drainage. As explained, dumping of the wastes means disposing of the wastes generated, on open grounds. The dumping site can be within or outside the city limits, and the wastes generated are left in the duping area to decompose. Needless to say, this method of dealing with waste comes with a large number of downsides and is not at all recommended. These dumps often become a breeding ground of disease-causing vectors, cause pollution of water if washed away by rain, and may also lead to the degradation of soil. Sanitary landfills, as has been described, involve covering the landfills with the earth and hence prevent the environmental impacts.

Composting is another method used in different cities in India and is a highly effective process of biodegradation. By this process, solid wastes are transformed into biodegradable manure. Composting has proved to be an effective method of waste disposal, especially in rural or suburban areas of India. In addition to effective waste disposal, this method also allows for the production of natural manure and hence is preferable (Stamps et al., 2016).

Drainage is another method of dealing with waste, and the drainage system is entirely developed in India. This prevents waste accumulation and soil erosion and involves the construction of well-planned channels for the flow of water. Therefore, this process helps in dealing with the waste generated in different cities in India.

Among the four methods of waste management that have been pointed out, sanitary landfills will be discussed in detail, and a comparison will be drawn between two of the densely populated cities, namely Hyderabad and Paris.

Background and problem statement

Generation of solid waste has been recorded at 4400 tons per day in Hyderabad, and GHMC has revealed that the efficiency of collection of waste has increased from 72% to 80%. The integrated solid waste management system is used by GHMC (Hauser, 2016). The quantity of disposable rejects is approximately 800 tons per day. Bulk density of the waste is 1 ton per cubic meter. The volume of disposable reject is around 800 cubic meters per day. The space used in Hyderabad for landfills is located in Jawahar Nagar; the system is decentralized. Another landfill is to be set up at Papyreddiguda in Shadnagar and Khanapur in Rangareddy district. Papireddyguda, dumping yard is spread over an area of 250 acres. Khanapur and Patancheru are of 50 and 80 acres respectively.

The landfill size specifications have been established to ensure that the procedures are followed in landfills at Jawahar Nagar. In northern Jawahar Nagar, the landfill constitutes an area of 13 acres per 55000 square meters. The landfill capacities in this regard state that the ground level area is of 54,635 square meters, below ground level area is of 31,329 square meters, the ground-level depth is of 2 meters, available on the top is 1029 square meters, and the available volume of the facility is 624,225 cubic meter (Vadlamudi, 2017).

The waste items in landfills are segregated, and this constitutes one of the essential steps in the process. Segregation becomes necessary in this regard due to the fact that different types of waste have different impacts on the environment and hence, effective measures for their management must be put in place.

In Hyderabad, both male and female workers are employed for the segregation of waste. Employees used for the purpose are generally contractual, and the waste collection process takes place at Begumpet. A tricycle cart is used by these contractual employees to collect the waste items by going door-to-door. Approximately 2-4 workers are assigned to collect garbage from 200 households. Waste from around 30 houses can be obtained by one tricycle cart; however, recyclable materials are sent to the scrap dealers.

The problem statement in this regard is whether; this method can be streamlined and greater efficiency be obtained in this regard. The comparison with Paris may reveal exciting aspects, which would be beneficial in streamlining the processes in India. The challenge is that despite the facilities that have been described concerning Hyderabad, there still is inefficient emptiness management of waste in landfills.

Purpose of the research

The purpose of conducting this research is to derive a comparison between waste management in two densely populated cities in the world, namely Hyderabad in India and Paris in France. This would be instrumental in furthering the knowledge of how different towns manage the wastes generated. The comparison drawn between a city from a developing nation and that of a developed country would be insightful. In addition to furthering knowledge, some new avenues, which might be revealed by the comparison, would also be explored.

Research Aim and Objectives

To analyze the relational aspects of waste management policy in Hyderabad and investigate features of sanitary landfills in waste management.

  • To trace the existing waste management system in the cities of Hyderabad and Paris
  • To locate the relational benefits of sanitary landfills in Hyderabad
  • To analyze statistical data available on budget allocation for waste management in Hyderabad and Paris
  • To trace the use of the land after the landfill has been closed.



Research Questions

  • What are the existing waste management systems in Hyderabad and Paris?
  • What are the relational benefits of Sanitary landfills in Hyderabad?
  • What is the statistical information available on budget allocation for waste management in two cities?
  • What is the use of the land after the landfill is closed?


Brief Literature review

Waste management has been one of the biggest concerns in modern times as waste generation has increased several times due to increased availability and consumption (Rao, Babu and Chandana, 2018). The development of waste management strategies has now become a primary focus of the cities and towns. This has led to the development of many techniques for waste disposal and management.

Sanitary landfills have been proven to be exceedingly useful in dealing with waste in major cities of India. This is essentially one of the best methods implemented by the municipalities across India, to eliminate unsanitary disposal of waste materials (Trofymchuk et al., 2019). Sanitary landfills are well-engineered to handle the enormous magnitude of waste, and the process involves separating and confining waste materials. Sanitary landfills are often described as biological reactors whereby mixed organic waste gets broken down by the action of the decomposing microbes. Waste items are thus broken down into less toxic compounds, even though the process is time-consuming. These facilities are well-regulated and are operated as per the established guidelines for the purpose (Sree, Dash, and Leelavathi, 2020).

 Research Methods

The research method, in this case, would be secondary research or desk research and would not involve the use of primary data. For the conduction of this research, journals that have already been published on the subject will be used. Upon study of previously conducted research by different authors, a research gap shall be established, and the analysis shall be focused on bridging this gap. The research questions shall be answered by considering this gap and hence would be used in order to arrive at a conclusion.

Data Collection and Analysis

Data will be collected entirely from secondary sources which would include journals, books, research papers, and government websites. Internet sources would be extensively relied on, as this is the most accessible and cost-effective source of information. The data, thus collected, would be segregated, taking into consideration the inclusion and exclusion criteria. From the vast multitude of data collected, inclusion and exclusion criteria would be the inefficient instrumental selection of data.

In order to analyse the data, a mixed approach would be adopted, which would incorporate elements of both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This would enable for a higher degree of accuracy in the research and would, therefore, be instrumental in the successful answering of the research questions.

Limitations of the study

Since this is entirely secondary research, the limitation may include the following:

  • Unavailability of statistics and figures from online sources
  • Unavailability of internet connection due to any issues
  • The inefficient analysis may limit the scope of the research
  • Inability to obtain permission to access government websites
  • Technical problems may also pose a limitation
  • Inaccurate sources on the internet
  • A small sample size of secondary data such as case studies
  • Data may be outdated


Chapter 2: Research Methodology

Research design

At first, the total amount of solid waste generation in the city Hyderabad per day has been estimated. After that, a clear outline of the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation has been created so that the estimation of the total amount of solid waste becomes more authentic. In order to understand the current scenario of solid waste generation, the wastes were divided into two parts, biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes, which are being treated under the regulations of Hyderabad Municipal. In this context, a pre-formed framework of research method has been followed for making more accessible the data and research methodology validation and authentication.

Research Philosophy

The research philosophy is generally a belief in which some information about a particular incident is collected, analyzed and evaluated (Tracy, 2019). In the case of the metropolitan city, waste management is quite tricky in nature. This research study is expected to express the current scenario and issues in solid waste management, especially in the sanitary landfilling. A wide range of secondary research that is, review of the pieces of literature has been critically done, which has successfully portrayed the issues and scenario of sanitary landfilling in Hyderabad city. The reasons for such situations have been seen as rapid urbanization, industrial development and all. Here, the research methodology has been arranged in such a way that all the research objectives are met. In this case, the research philosophy aspects, the positivism and the interpretivism can be seen wherein positivism, the current scenario of sanitary landfilling approaches and its management process is analyzed, one the other hand via interpretivism, the reality of sanitary landfilling, which is immense degradation of the environment (in soil, water, air, all aspects) can also be observed.

The applied strategy of research

At first, the wastes were divided into biodegradable and non-biodegradable parts. Then the non-biodegradable wastes were further divided into hazardous (bio-medical wastes) or non-hazardous (simple plastic) (Kulkarni, 2020). Here, a simplified research structure has been mentioned.

  • Collection of appropriate secondary research materials
  • Selection of appropriate research methodologies
  • Mechanism of recycling
  • SWOT analysis of the research studies
  • And lastly, statistical analysis of both cities’ (Hyderabad and Paris) current sanitary landfilling data

For better understanding, the statistical data analysis, the regions of both the cities were divided into zones, for example like residential, or commercial or industrial zones.

The applied approach of research

In order to initiate the research study, at first, all the necessary data was collected from reliable resources like books, journals, research articles where the research topic has been portrayed elaborately (Hancock and Algozzine, 2017). After that, data was collected from a full time span so that the previous scenario of sanitary land filling and current scenario of sanitary land filling in context of solid waste management gets clear. Thereafter the total amount of collected wastes are calculated and observed the differences. The data was divided into chemical and physical analyses.

Flow of the research

This particular task has been done by critically reviewing the significances of sanitary land filling in resent and near future municipal solid waste management policies (Ghosh et al., 2018). The objectives of this research were prepared after following the frameworks which have already been used by the researchers in earlier times. Here, the secondary research method have been following, thereby a large section of research work has been done towards the review of the literatures. The data collection has also been done as per the research studies. In order to understand and analyze the statistical data, the regions as well as the wastes have been critically divided. After analyzing the statistical data, the economic budget of each of the municipal cities (Hyderabad and Paris) as for their solid waste management, especially for the sanitary land filling has been evaluated. Lastly the land usage pattern after the land filling is analyzed.


Data and information collection process

As the dissertation work is being done as secondary research process, there a huge amount of previously done research works have been used to analyze and evaluate the research objectives. As the data collection process begins, it was found that the amount of information was quite huge. So all the data was divided into few aspects which are being mentioned in below-

  • The physical characteristics of the wastes- with an aim to understand the physical nature and diversity of solid wastes, both the cities were categorized into three zones like residential, commercial and industrial zones. Thereafter, the wastes were divided by their physical nature like paper, glass, wood, plastics and all. All the details and amount of these categories have been collected.
  • The chemical characterization- the municipal solid wastes has been found to be diverse in qualities along with such parameters like locality, community lifestyle, weather conditions and many others. The key chemical characteristics have been divided into such aspects- pH, moisture content, calorific value, amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, organic matter (Kumar, 2016). All these sections have provided required details in the research study.

Ethical considerations

Even after considering the sanitary land filling a good strategy of municipal solid waste management, the research studies have shown that this process is a leading method towards the environmental degradation in terms of increasing the risks of air pollution (dust, odor, explosions, fires, greenhouse gases emissions), water pollution (leaching, ground water pollution, arsenic like chemicals’ concentration increase), soil pollution (natural soil structure changes, landslides, increase of rodents) and natural habitat degradation (loss of biodiversity) (Soroudi iet al., 2018).

Another one issue which is not very clear is that the moral issues of the authorities. Despite of having environmental degradation causes, the sanitary land filling is one of the most reliable methods of solid waste management. Thereby the regular monitoring and land value analysis is required which in most of the cases are not to be found. This issue leads the idea of sanitary land filling far behind despite of its advantages (Aparcana, 2017).


Chapter 3: Data collection and Analysis

Data collection process

Data shall be collected from different secondary sources, which shall include books and journals procured from the library, and research papers from the internet sources. The following sources of data would be used for the purpose of conduction of this research:

  • Different publications of central, state or local governments
  • Publications of foreign governments and other international bodies on the subject
  • Technical journals pertaining to waste management
  • Newspapers, books magazines
  • Reports published by university scholars, available at university websites
  • Public records, statistics, historical documents, and other published information

In total, 25 research papers pertaining to waste management, 2 books related to waste management and a considerably large number of websites would be used. Laws pertaining to waste management in both the cities in discussion shall be collected from the government websites of the respective countries (JOHNSON and SYLVIA, 2018).

Several aspects shall be considered in relation to the data being collected, and these include the following:

  • Reliability- While internet sources are one of the most cost effective sources of information, it must be recognized that, there are many websites which cannot be relied upon. Therefore, data shall be collected from websites that contain authenticated information (Johnston, 2017).
  • Suitability- The data taken into consideration for research purpose shall be chosen based on a stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria. This would be done so as to maintain the relevance of the data that has been utilized (Prasad, 2017).
  • Adequacy of data- As has been stated, substantial number of research papers journals and books would be used. This would ensure that high precision is maintained and facts do not get obscured due to lack of data.

Overview of Collected Data 

Assortment of data will be utilized through the learner for this research that consist of equally qualitative as well as quantitative information. To provide a short synopsis of the data collection procedure, it be able to be stated that the subsequent data resources will be comprehensively utilized intended for the execution of the analysis:

  • Data upon Sanitary landfill and its implementation throughout Paris and Hyderabad
  • Information upon the framework of the study, i.e., wherefore the study is being performed
  • Information regarding several research gaps on the context of Sanitary landfill and its implementation throughout Paris and Hyderabad
  • Information upon diverse Sanitary methods used in the two aforesaid cities
  • Information upon the appropriability of these kinds of procedures
  • Information regarding the part of the governmental policies in context of improved sanitary landfill
  • Data on modern sanitary landfill procedures exercised throughout the world
  • Data on the recycling procedures of landfill gases
  • Information relating to in what manner Sanitary landfill is advantageous
  • Numerical features relating toward the similar subject matter

Analysis of Collected Data

Quantitative data remains data in the region of amounts, besides consequently statistics, as well as this type of information is evocative, in addition favours singularity which be able to be spotted nonetheless not calculated, for instance linguistic, whereas qualitative study is multi-technique well-defined, connecting an explanatory, realistic method toward its topic. This implies that qualitative scholars examine matters around their usual situations, endeavouring to understand, or else explain, occurrences in conditions of the connotation’s individuals convey toward them. The collected information will be analysed by means of an assorted technique that may integrate the philosophies of qualitative in addition to quantitative study of information. The phrase assorted technique relates toward an up-and-coming research method. The quantitative features of the information for instance the numbers signifying the benefits of Sanitary landfill as well as the difference between techniques applied by Paris and Hyderabad will be analysed by means of quantitative approaches. Other facets for instance modern Sanitary landfill approaches, amount of gas emitted from these landfills will be analysed utilizing qualitative techniques (Fletcher., 2017). The data accumulated will be analysed in such a manner that utmost region concerning toward the study is included. A number of 25 academic journals is accumulated as well as analysed, along with whilst analysing consistency can be affirmed (Mohajan., 2018). The most important rationale intended for employing this technique is to incorporate quantitative as well as qualitative information accumulated upon the matter as well as to safeguard a synchronized application of information. Both open-ended, along with close-ended information, will be analysed as well as utilized.

The quantitative information frequently has a tendency to confuse the larger particulars concerning some certain subject matter consequently; quantifiable information may not continually provide a clear-cut understanding in the subject matter. For example, statistics that is taken in concern of a sizeable cluster of instances, then consequently puts minimum scale intended for identifying additional precise facets as well as specific instances. Alternatively, Qualitative assessment, almost not permits intended for accurate statistics associated toward the subject matter (Kumar., 2019). Consequently, implementing a combined technique of evaluation might empower intended for an improved insight of the topic. The combined technique of evaluation might permit the assimilation of together, mathematical accuracy in conjunction with idiosyncratic research. The numerous instances accumulated on or after electronic resources and several academic journals along with data collected from governmental sources will be analysed utilizing qualitative techniques. In contrast, the figures as well as mathematical facets for instance the construction details, composition of landfill gases will be analysed employing quantitative techniques. Around this method the combined technique might be utilized to analyse the data as well as distribute the outcomes.

Specified Approach for Data Analysis 

LCA is utilized to measure prospective ecological influences associated toward a merchandise or else procedure all the way through the supply of its reserves, dissipates as well as discharges. Being as a supervision instrument, it does it feasible to link the technological facets as well as ecological accomplishments of alternate situations, as well as to pinpoint hotspots in addition to prospects intended for progress around the life phase in research. An LCA research is arranged around four phases (Liu et al., 2017). The objective as well as scale classification phase focuses the objective as well as scale of the research via forming the scheme frontiers. The resulting elements ought to be explained: the objective of the research, the procedures encompassed as well as whatever foundation remains to be utilized, for instance, the operational component. The following phase remains the LCI  or else life cycle inventory, which comprises around the classification as well as computation of the responses as well as yields of every component procedure that happens inside the recognized scheme frontiers. During the influence evaluation phase, the supply is transformed in ecological signs intended for the influence classifications that will differ reliant upon the technique utilized (Nabavi-Pelesaraei et al., 2019). The finishing phase contains evaluation of the outcomes as well as appraisal of assumptions centered upon the goals stated around the description of the objective as well as extent.



Chapter 4: Concluding Observations and Recommendations


The research tries to focus on the sanitary land filling with respect to the waste management policy in Hyderabad and Paris. The study shows that both the cities huge amount of waste that is dumped in the lands which could pave way to environmental pollution. Thus, sanitary land filling is one of the proposed ways for managing the waste. Sanitary landfill is a modern way of landfill where the waste decomposes biologically and the inert materials are settled in isolation. Research has revealed that the door collection of garbage was about 72%. Thus, GHMC uses an effective approach for the waste management (Khoso et al. 2018).

The study shows that solid waste generated are a great threat to the economy as well as to the environment. At the time of globalization, the handling of huge masses of solid is a big issue and sanitary landfill is the appropriate process for that. Similar to that, Paris has also adopted the process of landfill to reduce the emission of toxic and poisonous gases (Nisbet et al. 2020). However, the design is expensive and has different ways of doing it for adopting to the local conditions. In addition to this, the study also tries to highlight that small changes in the landfills are more advantageous than the large leap. This is because large landfills will need more investment to improve as compared to smaller sites.

The study focuses on an alternative way for managing the ever increasing volume of waste that is beneficial for the environment. The researcher has illustrated that sanitary landfill process operates in a systematic manner. This approach is advantageous than the open dumping system. Thus, it has been widely used in the countries to improve their pollution level. This study also focused on the relational aspects of sanitary land filling.

Discussion 400 Mariam

The findings of the present research endeavour have indicated towards the understanding of the policies of the waste management that is implied in the developing country of India in the city of Hyderabad. The city of Hyderabad has a system of sanitary land filling which has been clearly disc used in the present study. The understanding posed by the present research endeavour has indicated towards firstly the system that is followed by the city of Hyderabad to managing the solid wastes produced within the city is that of the integrated municipal solid waste management system whereby the GHMC managed the solid wastes produced at a large quantity within the city and also managed the sanitary land fillings of the city. The Country of India being highly populated the waste management system becomes a matter of primary concern for the municipal bodies in the cities of the country.

The second important aspect that was noticed as per the objectives of the study is that of the sanitary land filling function of the municipal body of the city of Hyderabad. It has been found that the city follows a waste management facility that is spread throughout the city. The land filling operation has to manage a huge amount of wastes that are rejected and disposed through the land filling in the city. The volume of the waste being 800 m3 per day that is disposed in the land filling operation of the city. There are also several elements on the basis of which the disposable waste management is done by the function of land filling. These elements include the likes of plan evaluation and land fill site footprint, the liner system design and system of leachate collection, etc which helps in the better planning of the management of the solid wastes in the city.

The findings also give an insight into the waste segregation system followed by the city which has been seen to be planned as well. The city has a separate area that is dedicated to the collection of the segregated wastes. The municipal body though implies the employment of staff for the collection of the wastes from household but the number of staff for the function is less in number which shall affect the efficiency of the work done.

The city has a separate area that is maintained for the land filling operation and the leachate collection system whereby the bottom line system is used by the city to employ the way of collecting then wastes but the completion of the system is not yet fulfilled within the city.


Concluding observations

The observation that could be made from the findings is that the city of Hyderabad though has a good waste management system employed within its system but it has a long way to go as far as the proper management of the wastes is concerned. There are several areas into which the city needs to concentrate upon as far as the waste management is concerned. The city in order to be comparative to the waste management system followed by the countries like Ireland and Paris has to implement several operational systems that shall bring about a change upon the waste management picture of the country. Grounded upon the findings of the literature survey the subsequent physical characteristics of landfills around tropical (India) environments be able to be encapsulated: Huge amounts of leachate (frequently in excess of 1100 mm/a) along with robust differences around cyclical production levels correspond to a most important question intended for landfill operators in tropical countries. Leachate created for the duration of the wet time of year is described by means of smaller contamination then consequently might  necessitate fewer rigorous handling such as leachate produced throughout the parched time of year. Throughout the parched time of year waste corrosion levels are lessened, a challenge that  may possibly be confronted by means of leachate re-distribution. Proper layout of landfill comprises is helpful designed for reducing leachate discharges along with landfill fume discharges.  As a general rule, decay levels on humid landfills have a tendency to remain elevated in contrast to landfills around mild environments like Paris, a reality which remains advantageous concerning the maintenance of landfills. Though huge amounts of landfill air are produced (owing to high-level substances of decomposable substance around MSW as well as optimum circumstances intended for bacterial disintegration of biological material), landfill gas remains typically not employed around steamy microclimates (mostly owing to economic limitations).



The revelations from the research necessitate a few recommendations on the matter, as there are many ways in which substantial development can be achieved in the landfills. In the light of the comparison which has been drawn between the Hyderabad and Paris, these recommendations become necessary:

  • Considering the fact that landfills need to be operated and maintained, it would be prudent to simply reducing the amount of solid waste generated.
  • Recycling is a practice that reduces landfill and makes it easier to manage. At the same time it leads to sustainable development. In case of Hyderabad it has been observed that the contractual workers, who go door to door to collect waste materials, recycle the materials which can be.
  • Other alternatives such as incineration can be used, however that leads to pollution and hence, should be used only outside city limits.
  • Biological treatment is another alternative; however, this can be a costly prospect. Similarly pyrolysis, and plasma arc gasification are other methods for the same (Bhagawan et al., 2017).
  • Another method of waste management, which has been discussed in the overview in chapter 1, is composting (Reddy and Reddy, 2018). This has been found to be greatly effective in case of bio-degradable wastes. However, this method is not very effective for plastics. Even then composting can serve as a viable alternative to the sanitary landfills and reduce the pressure.



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Article Name
Comparison of Landfill method of Waste Management between Hyderabad and Paris
This study is going to discuss sanitary landfills in Hyderabad and Paris. Sanitary landfills involve the process of dumping waste into a pit with several layers. Here, the waste is isolated from the environment till it becomes safe or is decomposed via the biological process. The study aims to focus on the waste management system of Hyderabad and Paris.
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