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Report on Iron Deficiency Anemia and Sickle Cell Anemia

Part1: Iron deficiency anemia

Background

Anemia happens when the red blood cells (RBCs) produce a low level of haemoglobin. In your RBCs, haemoglobin is the protein responsible for bringing oxygen into the tissues.
Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia, which occurs when there is not enough mineral iron in your body. To generate hemoglobin the body needs iron. When your blood stream doesn’t contain enough iron, the rest of your body can’t get the amount of oxygen it needs. (Warner, Anemia, Iron Deficiency 2019)

Symptoms & Risk Factors 

Symptoms

  • The symptoms of anemia with iron deficiency can at first be mild and you may not even consider them. Most people don’t realize they have mild anemia (Iron deficiency anemia: Causes, symptoms, and management) until they have a routine blood test, according to the American Society of Hematology (ASH).
    Symptoms of mild to extreme anemia with iron deficiency include:
    • General Tiredness
    • Inability
    • Pale skin
    • Breathlessness
    • Dizziness
    • Weird cravings to consume non-food things like soil, ice or clay

Risk Factors

  • Anemia is a common disorder and can arise from any age and ethnic group in both men and women. Some individuals may be at higher risk of anemia with iron deficiency than others  including: (Iron deficiency anemia: Causes, symptoms, and management)
    • Women in pregnancy
    • women of childbearing age
    • People live on bad diets
    • Those who still donate blood
    • Children and infants, particularly those born prematurely or with a growth spurt

Laboratory and Diagnostic Findings

Blood checks which should include a full blood count (CBC) will diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. Additional tests can be ordered to determine serum ferritin levels, iron levels, total iron-binding ability, and/or transferrin. Those tests typically show the following results in an adult who is anemic due to iron deficiency: (Iron deficiency anemia: Causes, symptoms, and management)
• Low hemoglobin (Hg) and hematocrit (Hct)
• Low mean cellular volume (MCV)
• Low ferritin
• Low serum iron (FE)
• High transferrin or total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)

Peripheral smear or blood slide can show pale centers of tiny, oval-shaped cells. In extreme iron deficiency, the white blood count (WBC) can be poor, with high or low platelet counts.

Treatment

In less serious cases, iron deficiency anemia treatment requires dietary modifications that include iron-rich foods in daily oral intake and oral iron supplementation. Foods high in ascorbic acid (vitamin C) can also be helpful, as ascorbic acid improves the absorption of iron. Oral iron supplements are available in several types. Some are in pill form and others are drops for kids. Oral iron supplements are better taken up on an empty stomach by the body because food can reduce the amount of iron that is consumed from the small intestine. (Iron deficiency anemia: Causes, symptoms, and management) Dosage of oral iron replacement therapy in adults is as much as 100-200 mg per day and in children is 3-6 mg per kilo. This is usually spread out over the entire day as 3-4 pills are taken.

Complications and Prognosis

Iron deficiency anemia seldom causes problems of any severe or long lasting type. Some people with iron deficiency anemia, however, consider it affects their daily lives. Below are a few of the more common complications. (Iron deficiency anemia: Causes, symptoms, and management)
• You may be less successful and busy at work as iron deficiency anaemia may leave you exhausted and lethargic (lacking in energy). This may will your ability to stay awake and concentrate, and you may not feel able to exercise regularly.
• Research has shown that anemia with an iron deficiency can affect the immune system (the natural defense mechanism of the body), making you more vulnerable to disease and infection.
Prevention
Eating a diet high in iron-rich foods and vitamin C will avoid iron deficiency anaemia when caused by insufficient iron intake. Mums should be careful to feed breast milk or iron-fortified infant formula for their babies. (Preventing Iron Deficiency and Anaemia)
• Foods that are rich in iron contain meat like lamb, pork, chicken and beef, etc.
• Rich in vitamin C foods include fruits like bananas, grapefruits, strawberries, kiwis, guavas, papayas, pineapples, melons and mangoes.

Part2: Sickle cell anemia

Background

Sickle cell anemia is one of a number of sickle cell disease disorders. Sickle cell anemia is an inherited red blood cell disorder where you don’t have enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen all over your body.
The compact, round red blood cells usually pass into blood vessels very quickly. The red blood in sickle cell anemia is shaped like sickles or crescent moons. Such stiff, sticky cells can get trapped in tiny blood vessels that can impede or block blood flow and oxygen to body parts. (Sickle cell disease: Causes, types, and more)

Symptoms & Risk Factors

Symptoms

The major features and symptoms of sickle cell anemia include: (Sickle cell disease: Causes, types, and more)
• Fatigue and anemia
• Crises causing pain
• Dactylitis (hands and/or feet swelling and inflammation), and arthritis
• Infectious bacteria
• Sudden blood pooling in spleen and hepatic obstruction

Risk Factors

And when both parents have a sickle cell gene are children at risk for sickle cell disease. A blood check called an electrophoresis of the hemoglobin can also decide which form you may bring. People in areas suffering from endemic malaria are more likely to be carriers. It covers people from (Sickle cell anaemia information: myVMC 2003)
• Africa
• India
• the Mediterranean
• Saudi Arabia

Laboratory and Diagnostic Findings

All the newborns are checked for sickle cell disease in the United States. Prebirth research refers at the amniotic fluid for the sickle cell gene. One or more of the following procedures can also be used for diagnosing sickle cell disease in children and adults. (Jr., 2020)
• Patient history in depth
• Blood tests
• Hb electrophoresis

Treatment

Sickle cell anemia is used in a variety of different treatments:
• Intravenous fluid rehydration allows the red blood cells return to a normal state. When you’re dehydrated, the red blood cells are more likely to deform and assume the sickle shape.
• Treating underlying or related infections is an vital part of handling the crisis, as a sickle cell crisis may result from the stress of an infection. An infection can also prove to be a crisis complication. (Jr., 2020)
Complications and Prognosis
Anemia from sickle cells can lead to a host of complications including:
• Accidental stroke: Sickle cells can block flow of blood to a brain area. Signs of stroke include hallucinations, arms and legs weakness or numbness, sudden lack in speech and loss of consciousness. If your child has any of those signs and symptoms, seek immediate medical treatment. A stroke can have fatal consequences.
• Acute syndrome to the chest: This life-threatening complication can be caused by a lung infection or sickle cells blocking blood vessels in your lungs, leading to chest pain, fever and difficulty breathing. It may need medical emergency care. (Sickle cell anaemia information: myVMC 2003)

Prevention

Having a genetic counselor before attempting to conceive will help you appreciate the chance of raising a child with sickle cell anemia if you are carrying the sickle cell trait. They may also clarify care outcomes, preventive measures and reproductive choices. (Sickle cell anaemia information: myVMC 2003)

Reference

Retrieved May 08, 2020, from https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/iron-deficiency-anaemia/
Iron deficiency anemia – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic. Retrieved May 8, 2020, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/iron-deficiency-anemia/symptoms-causes/syc-20355034
Iron-Deficiency Anemia. Retrieved May 08, 2020, from https://www.hematology.org/education/patients/anemia/iron-deficiency
Which factors can precipitate the sickling process that prompts a crisis in sickle cell disease (SCD)? (2019, November 26). Retrieved May 08, 2020, from https://www.medscape.com/answers/205926-15305/which-factors-can-precipitate-the-sickling-process-that-prompts-a-crisis-in-sickle-cell-disease-scd
Sickle cell disease – Genetics Home Reference – NIH. Retrieved May 08, 2020, from https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/sickle-cell-disease