Topic: Aplastic Anemia
1. Background (demographic distributions – prevalence or incidence, sex/race/age predilections, etc. – associated with the disease and the etiology of this disease process.
Considered a rare life-threatening disease, Aplastic anaemia (AA) is not so widespread. But it has been observed that the incidence and the median age at diagnosis that has been found to be varying according to geographical locations, eventually ranging from 1.5 to about 7 cases per million inhabitants per year, and the age group is between 25 to 60 quite respectively (Vaht et al., 2017).
2. The risk factors, symptoms, and clinical presentation of this disease.
There are certain clinical presentations of the patients with AA that include symptoms that are highly related to the alleviation in bone marrow production of hematopoietic cells, and the onset is usually insidious (Bakshi, 2018). The initial symptoms included bleeding, fever or infections, pallor, headache, palpitations, dyspnea, swelling of the feet, extreme fatigue, gingival bleeding, recurrent or overt infections, Oropharyngeal ulcerations, etc (Bakshi, 2018). Moreover, the risk factors of AA increase in cases where the victim is exposed to toxins or has taken specific medicines or had radiation or chemotherapy (HOA, n.d.). Moreover, it has been seen that the risk of AA increases if the victim already has infectious diseases, any autoimmune disorder, or certain inherited conditions (HOA, n.d.).
3. Typical laboratory and diagnostic findings for this diagnosis (specific blood values, etc.)
Bone marrow analysis is the most prevalent laboratory test meant for diagnosing AA. In this respect, it should be noted that, at the laboratory, for diagnosing AA, red blood cell test, white blood cell test and platelet levels are observed whether remaining within certain ranges (Mayo Clinic, 2020). It has been observed that in all the concerned blood tests the blood cell levels are low, and the primary symptom in the patient is bleeding (Mayo Clinic, 2020).
4. A brief review of treatments used including an explanation of why the treatment is effective in restoring normal physiology and if serious side effects are associated.
AA is a rare life-threatening disease that hardly has any specific cure, but it can be managed through the implementation of certain specific treatment procedures. For example, blood transfusions can come to play a vital role in treating AA (Mayo Clinic, 2020). Although cannot be considered a thorough cure for AA, blood transfusions can control the bleeding and relieve symptoms through the way of providing blood cells that the bone marrow of the patient is not producing (Mayo Clinic, 2020). In this respect, the patient might have to receive a higher count of red blood cells and platelets (Mayo Clinic, 2020).
5. Complications, prognosis
Regarding the prognosis, it can be said that the estimated ten-year survival rate for a typical patient with AA receiving immunosuppression is about sixty-eight per cent and the rate becomes seventy-three per cent in cases of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) (Bakshi, 2018). The primary complication is unrestrained bleeding that has to be stopped at the very onset.
6. Prevention of complications of the disease itself, if applicable.
Though preventive measures are gradually developing in the case of the overall treatment of AA, it has been seen that improved supportive care has been effective in preventing further complications or deterioration in patients whenever applicable (Bakshi, 2018).
7. Provide a starting point for the discussion by describing any controversies or new advances. You may wish to create specific questions to pose to your colleagues, include your own opinion, and/ or provide a real-life example.
There are new advances being brought into effect in the context of the treatment of AA. For instance, improved supportive care has contributed largely to the alleviation of the rate of occurrence of the disease (Bakshi, 2018). Moreover, improvement in immunosuppression and hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) processes has been found to be effective in managing and treating the disease, sometimes even during the same (Bakshi, 2018).