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Literature Review on RFID

Literature Review

RFID technology makes use of radiofrequency to transfer data and information present in the  RFID tags to the target recipients. These RFID tags are attached to different objects and may be used for tracking and identification. This technology has advantages over typical bar codes. Unlike bar codes which are “read-only”, RFID tags are “read-write” (Ajami, S., & Rajabzadeh, 2013). RFID is an economical technology that not only eases the tracing of objects but also enables operations in a very less time. Besides tracking and tracing victims and transferring the real-time data to the concerned personnel, human beings have implemented this technology in different areas of operations such as in airports, healthcare systems, agriculture, transportation, manufacturing and supply chain (Duroc & Tedjini, 2018). This section emphasizes the application of RFID technology to humans, especially in healthcare, airports and tourism.

RFID In Healthcare
Errors in medical science have huge impacts on patients whose costs they have to pay throughout their lives. US reports have revealed that such errors in healthcare systems are a third leading cause of death among the patients (Yao, Chu & Li, 2010). The major concerns in the health care units that RFID technology takes into account are the prevalence of lack of information among doctors and the authorities, the absence of tracking systems, and the long waits that patients undergo at the clinic. RFID technology provides a systemic solution to each of these problems through its swift mechanism of identification. RFID technology when implemented in the health care units helps in identifying counterfeited medicines by not recognizing the RFID tags on those objects (Attaran, 2007). In addition to this, it also prevents caregivers from wrong medications given to patients, thereby bridging the communication gap between the two elements. Moreover, RFID plays an important role during surgical procedures. It helps in the prior identification and tracking of all the devices that may be required during surgery within seconds.
Besides tracking equipment, the most acknowledged benefit of RFID technology in healthcare units is to ensure patient safety. This is made possible through its capability to quickly retrieve patient information and monitors the location of the patient in the hospital. This helps in the accurate identification of the patients. For example, automating sponge counting by RFID is implemented in the US. This helps in counting the sponge that may have been left inside the body of the patient. Another major challenge that healthcare units face is the cost and time of operation. RFID technology helps in reducing this challenge as well. For example, asset tracking and monitoring systems that are based on RFID technology prevent valuable equipment from being stolen. Moreover, monitoring systems also increase the productivity of health care workers and decrease the rent of equipment.

RFID In Aviation Industry
Airlines need to maintain their competitiveness through their high-quality services to the passengers. RFID technology implemented by the aviation industry helps airlines to identify themselves in their passenger services by providing hassle-free checking of baggage during the first phase as well as swift passenger checks in the later stages as well. The main benefits of installing RFID technology in airports and other units of the supply chain industry are its cost-effectiveness and enhanced safety. The adoption of this technology at the airports for the sorting and handling of baggage provides benefits to the three main stakeholders. They are the airports, passengers and the airlines.
According to an IATA survey, bar codes reveal a 9.7% error in calculating mishandled baggage at the airlines while airports handle even larger errors. RFID projects, on the other hand, have been known to reduce such errors by 9.7%. Airports need manual communication to ensure that baggage reaches the appropriate airline (Mishra & Mishra, 2010). The benefit of RFID technology in this case, as revealed by airport baggage statistics, there is a 12.5% savings and efficient communication between the airports and the intended flight (Mishra & Mishra, 2010). Although cost-saving remains the primary benefit of this technology, it also enhances passenger services by ensuring faster tracking of mishandled baggage. This is because this technology helps in tracking and recording the particular baggage in case it reaches the wrong terminal or flight. This helps in faster delivery of the baggage to the passenger, thereby increasing the responsiveness of the airport authorities.
Furthermore, the RFID technology is also known to improve the management of security at the airport. The baggage tagging system imposed by FAA after the 26/11 incident ensures more safety for both airports as well as passenger.

RFID In Tourism
RFID technology has proved to be a boon for the tourism industry. Hospitalization organizations have implemented this technology to provide better services to guests. This is made possible through the collection of real-time data followed by the customization of services based on the acquired data. Some benefits of RFID technology as implemented in the tourism industry include cashless payments, automatic unlocking systems, luggage tracking and customer loyalty systems (Hozak, 2012). The payments systems installed on the hotel premise are aligned with RFID technology enabling customers to make payments anywhere in the hotel. Grand Hyatt in San Francisco implemented RFID locks in nearly 659 guest rooms. This comprehensive renovation project enables guests to unlock their rooms as soon as they approach the door. No sooner do they move away, than the room gets locked automatically.
The tourism industry has also implemented this technology to enjoy other benefits such as tracking alcohol, pool towels and costumes (Chen, 2013). It also reduces the wait time for the customers at the hotel. RFID enabled cards and wristbands provide numerous benefits in water parks and amusement parks.