Patients with Type II diabetes have often been found to suffer from coronary diseases. Although, the rates of such occurrences have decreased considerably because of the availability of a variety of medications and medical tools, yet they still remain an increased risk of CHD for diabetic patients (Carson et al., 2014). This report analyzes the data obtained to draw certain observations related to the relationship between coronary heart diseases and diabetes. In addition to this, the report also aims at identifying two of the competencies that would further be tied up with appropriate recommendations to enable effective implementation.
Identification of competencies
This project is mainly concerned about grasping an understanding of the relationship between coronary heart disease with diabetes. The data set has been obtained and has been thoroughly identified. In order to reduce the risk of the two threats among the races identified, two competencies have been proposed. These competencies have been chosen from foundational competencies and concentration competencies, one from each of the two categories. The foundational competency that has been identified clearly aligns with the designing of a policy, program or intervention methodology that is based upon the population under study. An ideal approach would be to intervene in all stages of the life of an individual suffering from either CHD or diabetes or both. This would help in the analysis of both the risks as well as the preventive measures that the patient can adopt to prevent further degradation. Hence, the best way to achieve the desired results is to develop an intervention program that would address the needs of the patients. This program would be designed in a way that it would serve as an effective means for encouraging the diabetic patients to eat a healthy and nutritious diet as well as improve physical activities. It would also aim at influencing the patients to manage the disease through the implementation of appropriate daily routines. The concentration competency, on the other hand, aims to design solutions to such problems by addressing as well as applying the health policies and health education norms. In addition to this, such competencies deploy self-efficacy and self-encouragement through the literacy program to bring about a stark change in the target population. Therefore, aligning with this competency, this project aims to develop a kit that would be distributed to the target audience for the desired result. This kit would comprise of brochures to educate the masses as well as glucometer for the purpose of measuring the blood-sugar level. Moreover, health fairs would be the best way for the distribution of these kits as well as generating awareness among the people.
To derive a better understanding of the relationship between CHD and diabetes, the study made use of secondary data. The main focus of the data obtained to rationalize various aspects such as cigarette smokers across the existing demographic groups in the country. The data that was used for the purpose of the analysis was obtained from the NHANES survey 2007-2008. It consisted of 10,000 participating respondents. The data obtained was then subjected to two t-tests. The target population was the age group of 37-101 years. They were divided according to their race, educational level as well as citizenship. On the whole, the target population comprised 4000 male that approximated to 40% of the population while 4000 were female and 2000 accounted for others. Conducting an education level survey helped in finding out that the majority of the population had received less than 8 years of education. This consisted of nearly 2600 individuals while 2400 of them had completed high school. Only 900- 1000 in each category had completed post-high school, college, and post-graduation. This clearly proves the need for education among the target group. Only education and awareness can serve the purpose of alleviating such health issues. Moreover, it was found that nearly 9380 of them have consumed at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime while only a minor population had either never smoked or smoked less. Studies have also revealed that persons who have smoked at least five cigarettes each day are at a higher risk of developing coronary heart diseases (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention., 2010). This clearly indicates the absence of awareness among the individuals for the occurrence and recurrence of such chronic diseases. Smoking is considered as the biggest threat for Coronary Heart Diseases. Reports have revealed that smoking is responsible for more than 140000 premature deaths. Hence, the data obtained clearly proves that all the identified competencies need to align with the motive of increasing awareness as well as the literacy rate among the population. In addition to this, the sample tests have revealed that nearly 6000 individuals suffer from combined diseases that are both CHD as well as diabetes. This accounts for nearly 60% of the total population. The narrow margins by which the mean and standard deviation varies clearly highlights the precision with which the data has been obtained.
It is recommended that the intervention program that is to be implemented should comply with the needs of the population. To ensure that quality treatment is provided to the patients, it is further recommended that the program should align with policies that enhance public awareness (Institute of Medicine (US)., 2010). This can be made possible if the health committee recommends the state jurisdictions and governments to ensure that more importance is given to population-based interventions as compared to individual cases (Kelly & Fuster, 2010). Moreover, this program should also try to treat the systolic pressure, especially among the elderly as is evident from the results. Moreover, the program should arrange for regular classes to enhance the literacy rates. These classes should be associated with reward programs such that the individuals of the population may be encouraged to attend the same. Finally, policies should be developed in a manner that the state should work in close coordination with the health workers to reduce diabetes and CHD. The distribution of health kits at the health fairs seem to be a good opportunity to spread awareness among the individuals. However, keeping an eye on the highest level of population among the population, it is quite predictable that the majority of the people would not be able to use the glucometers. Therefore, it is recommended that separate units be arranged where the individuals would be demonstrated as to how to use the device. In addition to this, they should also be made aware of the benefits of using such devices. In addition to this, the health fairs should have appropriate health check-up units to check for the blood-sugar level of each visitor. Moreover, the brochures that are contained in the kit should be thoroughly explained to the patients. There should be provisions for assistance in case the individuals face problems with using the glucometer at home. Above all, the kits should be manufactured at a low cost such that the users of the kit can purchase them easily. This is because the majority of the population belongs to the lower middle class with only a few of them having an income above $5000.
The report has analyzed the data set that was obtained to derive a relationship between coronary heart disease and diabetes. Analysis of the data set revealed the lack of education and awareness as well as negligence towards the health of the participants. Therefore, the two competencies that have been identified align with the designing of deliverables and programs to meet these challenges.
Carson, A. P., Tanner, R. M., Yun, H., Glasser, S. P., Woolley, J. M., Thacker, E. L., … & Howard, G. (2014).
Declines in coronary heart disease incidence and mortality among middle-aged adults with and without diabetes. Annals of epidemiology, 24(8), 581-587.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). How tobacco smoke causes disease: The biology and behavioral basis for smoking-attributable disease: A report of the surgeon general.
Institute of Medicine (US). Committee on Public Health Priorities to Reduce and Control Hypertension in the US Population. (2010). A population-based policy and systems change approach to prevent and control hypertension. National Academies Press.
Kelly, B. B., & Fuster, V. (Eds.). (2010). Promoting cardiovascular health in the developing world: a critical challenge to achieve global health. National Academies Press.